⒈ The Cardiovascular System: Circulatory System In The Human Body

Wednesday, September 15, 2021 2:06:20 AM

The Cardiovascular System: Circulatory System In The Human Body



Do you suppose you know enough about the cardiovascular system? These very small, cellular fragments The Cardiovascular System: Circulatory System In The Human Body clump together to form The Cardiovascular System: Circulatory System In The Human Body clots hardening The Cardiovascular System: Circulatory System In The Human Body which forms clumps which puts an end to bleeding e. Prepare to have your heart pounding in Machiavelli Chapter Summary head, as you attempt The Cardiovascular System: Circulatory System In The Human Body solve the quizzes on the circulatory system. The body's breathing system. Circulatory System Trivia Quiz Test.

Exploring the Heart - The Circulatory System!

The beating of the heart drives the cardiac cycle which pumps blood to cells and tissues of the body. Blood vessels are intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body. Blood travels from the heart via arteries to smaller arterioles, then to capillaries or sinusoids, to venules, to veins and back to the heart. Through the process of microcirculation, substances such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes are exchanged between the blood and the fluid that surrounds cells.

Blood delivers nutrients to cells and removes wastes that are produced during cellular processes, such as cellular respiration. Blood is composed of red blood cells , white blood cells , platelets , and plasma. Red blood cells contain enormous amounts of a protein called hemoglobin. This iron-containing molecule binds oxygen as oxygen molecules enter blood vessels in the lungs and transports them to various parts of the body.

After depositing oxygen to tissue and cells, red blood cells pick up carbon dioxide CO 2 for transportation to the lungs where CO 2 is expelled from the body. The circulatory system supplies the body's tissues with oxygen-rich blood and important nutrients. In addition to removing gaseous waste like CO 2 , the circulatory system also transports blood to organs such as the liver and kidneys to remove harmful substances. This system aids in cell-to-cell communication and homeostasis by transporting hormones and signal messages between the different cells and organ systems of the body. The circulatory system transports blood along pulmonary and systemic circuits. The pulmonary circuit involves the path of circulation between the heart and the lungs.

The systemic circuit involves the path of circulation between the heart and the rest of the body. The aorta distributes oxygen rich blood to the various regions of the body. The lymphatic system is a component of the immune system and works closely with the cardiovascular system. The lymphatic system is a vascular network of tubules and ducts that collect, filter, and return lymph to blood circulation. Lymph is a clear fluid that comes from blood plasma, which exits blood vessels at capillary beds. This fluid becomes the interstitial fluid that bathes tissues and helps to deliver nutrients and oxygen to cells. In addition to returning lymph to circulation, lymphatic structures also filter blood of microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses.

The right side of the heart has less myocardium in its walls than the left side because the left side has to pump blood through the entire body while the right side only has to pump to the lungs. The heart contains 4 chambers: the right atrium , left atrium , right ventricle , and left ventricle. The atria are smaller than the ventricles and have thinner, less muscular walls than the ventricles. The atria act as receiving chambers for blood, so they are connected to the veins that carry blood to the heart. The ventricles are the larger, stronger pumping chambers that send blood out of the heart. The ventricles are connected to the arteries that carry blood away from the heart. The chambers on the right side of the heart are smaller and have less myocardium in their heart wall when compared to the left side of the heart.

This difference in size between the sides of the heart is related to their functions and the size of the 2 circulatory loops. The right side of the heart maintains pulmonary circulation to the nearby lungs while the left side of the heart pumps blood all the way to the extremities of the body in the systemic circulatory loop. The heart functions by pumping blood both to the lungs and to the systems of the body. The heart valves can be broken down into two types: atrioventricular and semilunar valves.

The heart is able to both set its own rhythm and to conduct the signals necessary to maintain and coordinate this rhythm throughout its structures. The conduction system starts with the pacemaker of the heart—a small bundle of cells known as the sinoatrial SA node. The SA node is located in the wall of the right atrium inferior to the superior vena cava. The SA node is responsible for setting the pace of the heart as a whole and directly signals the atria to contract.

The signal from the SA node is picked up by another mass of conductive tissue known as the atrioventricular AV node. The AV node is located in the right atrium in the inferior portion of the interatrial septum. The AV bundle is a strand of conductive tissue that runs through the interatrial septum and into the interventricular septum. The AV bundle splits into left and right branches in the interventricular septum and continues running through the septum until they reach the apex of the heart. Branching off from the left and right bundle branches are many Purkinje fibers that carry the signal to the walls of the ventricles, stimulating the cardiac muscle cells to contract in a coordinated manner to efficiently pump blood out of the heart.

The cardiac cycle includes all of the events that take place during one heartbeat. There are 3 phases to the cardiac cycle: atrial systole, ventricular systole, and relaxation. Deoxygenated blood returning from the body first enters the heart from the superior and inferior vena cava. The blood enters the right atrium and is pumped through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle. From the right ventricle, the blood is pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk.

The pulmonary trunk carries blood to the lungs where it releases carbon dioxide and absorbs oxygen. The blood in the lungs returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins. From the pulmonary veins, blood enters the heart again in the left atrium. The left atrium contracts to pump blood through the bicuspid mitral valve into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood through the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta. From the aorta, blood enters into systemic circulation throughout the body tissues until it returns to the heart via the vena cava and the cycle repeats. The electrocardiogram also known as an EKG or ECG is a non-invasive device that measures and monitors the electrical activity of the heart through the skin.

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