✯✯✯ How Did Sitting Bull Influence America
But that is Dwight Eisenhowers Presidency much about the last big piece of How Did Sitting Bull Influence America legislation as any How Did Sitting Bull Influence America one. Discussion of investor irrationality, How Did Sitting Bull Influence America bubbles, of destructive speculation had virtually disappeared from academic discourse. And in the saltwater view, active policy to fight recessions How Did Sitting Bull Influence America desirable. Instead, it went underground. Taku Skanskan What causes water How Did Sitting Bull Influence America flow in a river? Egyptian Stone Sculpture It was in the late 2nd and early 3rd How Did Sitting Bull Influence America, from How Did Sitting Bull Influence America 2, BCE, that what could Race Differences In Repeat Offenders: A Literature Review termed Racial Disparities In Schools characteristic ancient-Egyptian style of sculpture in stone was established, a style How Did Sitting Bull Influence America through some 2, years to the How Did Sitting Bull Influence America period with only minor exceptions and modifications. He sees no need for setting apart one day in seven as a holy day, since to him all days are God's.
Rise Up: Chief Sitting Bull's 1883 Speech (*w/Audio \u0026 Running Text) (HD)
They promised to return to their loved ones within a period of three to four years. Wodziwob's peers accepted this vision, likely due to his reputable status as a healer. He urged the populace to dance the common circle dance as was customary during a time of celebration. He continued preaching this message for three years with the help of a local "weather doctor" named Tavibo, father of Jack Wilson. Prior to Wodziwob's religious movement, a devastating typhoid fever epidemic struck in This and other European diseases killed approximately one-tenth of the total population,  resulting in widespread psychological and emotional trauma. The disruption brought disorder to the economic system and society. Many families were prevented from continuing their nomadic lifestyle.
A round dance is a circular community dance held, usually around an individual who leads the ceremony. Round dances may be ceremonial or purely social. Usually the dancers are accompanied by a group of singers who may also play hand drums in unison. The dancers join hands to form a large circle. The dancers move to their left or right, depending on nation or territory with a side-shuffle step to reflect the long-short pattern of the drum beat , bending their knees to emphasize the pattern. During his studies of the Pacific Northwest tribes the anthropologist Leslie Spier used the term " prophet dances " to describe ceremonial round dances where the participants seek trance , exhortations and prophecy.
Spier studied peoples of the Columbia plateau a region including Washington , Oregon , Idaho , and parts of western Montana. By the time of his studies the only dances he was allowed to witness were social dances or ones that had already incorporated Christian elements, making investigation of the round dance's origin complicated. Jack Wilson, the "prophet" otherwise known as Wovoka , was believed to have had a vision during a solar eclipse on January 1, It was reportedly not his first time experiencing a vision; but as a young adult, he claimed that he was then better equipped, spiritually, to handle this message. Jack had received training from an experienced holy man under his parents' guidance after they realized that he was having difficulty interpreting his previous visions.
Jack was also training to be a "weather doctor", following in his father's footsteps. He was known throughout Mason Valley as a gifted and blessed young leader. Preaching a message of universal love, he often presided over circle dances, which symbolized the sun's heavenly path across the sky. Anthropologist James Mooney conducted an interview with Wilson prior to Mooney confirmed that his message matched that given to his fellow Indians. According to Mooney, Wilson's letter said he stood before God in heaven and had seen many of his ancestors engaged in their favorite pastimes, and that God showed Wilson a beautiful land filled with wild game and instructed him to return home to tell his people that they must love each other and not fight.
He also stated that Jesus was being reincarnated on earth in , that the people must work, not steal or lie, and that they must not engage in the old practices of war or the traditional self-mutilation practices connected with mourning the dead. He said that if his people abided by these rules, they would be united with their friends and family in the other world, and in God's presence, there would be no sickness, disease, or old age. Mooney writes that Wilson was given the Ghost Dance and commanded to take it back to his people. He preached that if the five-day dance was performed in the proper intervals, the performers would secure their happiness and hasten the reunion of the living and deceased. Wilson said that the Creator gave him powers over the weather and that he would be the deputy in charge of affairs in the western United States, leaving current President Harrison as God's deputy in the East.
Jack claims that he was then told to return home and preach God's message. Jack Wilson claimed to have left the presence of God convinced that if every Indian in the West danced the new dance to "hasten the event", all evil in the world would be swept away, leaving a renewed Earth filled with food, love, and faith. Because the first European contact with the practice came by way of the Lakota, their expression "Spirit Dance" was adopted as a descriptive title for all such practices.
This was subsequently translated as "Ghost Dance". Through Indians and some white settlers, Wilson's message spread across much of the western portion of the United States. Early in the religious movement, many tribes sent members to investigate the self-proclaimed prophet, while other communities sent delegates only to be cordial. Regardless of their initial motivations, many left as believers and returned to their homeland preaching his message. The Ghost Dance was also investigated by many Mormons from Utah , for whom the concepts of the Indian prophet were familiar and often accepted. An elaboration of the Ghost Dance concept was the development of ghost shirts , which were special clothing that warriors could wear. They were rumored to repel bullets through spiritual power.
It is uncertain where this belief originated. Scholars believe that in chief Kicking Bear introduced the concept to his people, the Lakota,  while James Mooney argued that the most likely source is the Mormon temple garment which Mormons believe protect the pious wearer from evil. The Lakota interpretation drew from their traditional idea of a "renewed Earth" in which "all evil is washed away". This Lakota interpretation included the removal of all European Americans from their lands: . They told the people they could dance a new world into being. There would be landslides, earthquakes, and big winds. Hills would pile up on each other. The earth would roll up like a carpet with all the white man's ugly things — the stinking new animals, sheep and pigs, the fences, the telegraph poles, the mines and factories.
Underneath would be the wonderful old-new world as it had been before the white fat-takers came. The white men will be rolled up, disappear, go back to their own continent. In February , the United States government broke a Lakota treaty by adjusting the Great Sioux Reservation of South Dakota an area that formerly encompassed the majority of the state and breaking it up into five smaller reservations. The Lakota were expected to farm and raise livestock, and to send their children to boarding schools. With the goal of assimilation, the schools taught English and Christianity, as well as American cultural practices.
Generally, they forbade inclusion of Indian traditional culture and language. To help support the Lakota during the period of transition, the Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA was to supplement the Lakota with food and to hire white farmers as teachers for the people. The farming plan failed to take into account the difficulty that Lakota farmers would have in trying to cultivate crops in the semi-arid region of South Dakota. By the end of the growing season, a time of intense heat and low rainfall, it was clear that the land was unable to produce substantial agricultural yields.
Unfortunately, this was also the time when the government's patience with supporting the so-called "lazy Indians" ran out. They cut rations for the Lakota in half. With the bison having been virtually eradicated a few years earlier, the Lakota were at risk of starvation. Those who had been residing in the area for a long time recognized that the ritual was often held shortly before battle was to occur. He claimed the Hunkpapa spiritual leader Sitting Bull was the real leader of the movement. A former agent, Valentine McGillycuddy , saw nothing extraordinary in the dances and ridiculed the panic that seemed to have overcome the agencies, saying: "The coming of the troops has frightened the Indians.
Why should not the Indians have the same privilege? If the troops remain, trouble is sure to come. Nonetheless, thousands of additional U. Army troops were deployed to the reservation. On December 15, , Sitting Bull was arrested for failing to stop his people from practicing the Ghost Dance. He instantly wheeled and shot Sitting Bull, hitting him in the left side, between the tenth and eleventh ribs;  this exchange resulted in deaths on both sides, including that of Sitting Bull.
Army's list of 'trouble-making' Indians. He was stopped while en route to convene with the remaining Lakota chiefs. Army officers forced him to relocate with his people to a small camp close to the Pine Ridge Agency. Here the soldiers could more closely watch the old chief. In , for example, stocks lost 48 percent of their value. And the stock crash, in which the Dow plunged nearly 23 percent in a day for no clear reason, should have raised at least a few doubts about market rationality.
These events, however, which Keynes would have considered evidence of the unreliability of markets, did little to blunt the force of a beautiful idea. The theoretical model that finance economists developed by assuming that every investor rationally balances risk against reward — the so-called Capital Asset Pricing Model, or CAPM pronounced cap-em — is wonderfully elegant.
They also produced a great deal of statistical evidence, which at first seemed strongly supportive. But this evidence was of an oddly limited form. Finance economists rarely asked the seemingly obvious though not easily answered question of whether asset prices made sense given real-world fundamentals like earnings. Instead, they asked only whether asset prices made sense given other asset prices. But neither this mockery nor more polite critiques from economists like Robert Shiller of Yale had much effect. Finance theorists continued to believe that their models were essentially right, and so did many people making real-world decisions.
Not least among these was Alan Greenspan, who was then the Fed chairman and a long-time supporter of financial deregulation whose rejection of calls to rein in subprime lending or address the ever-inflating housing bubble rested in large part on the belief that modern financial economics had everything under control. One brave attendee, Raghuram Rajan of the University of Chicago, surprisingly , presented a paper warning that the financial system was taking on potentially dangerous levels of risk. What should policy makers do? Unfortunately, macroeconomics, which should have been providing clear guidance about how to address the slumping economy, was in its own state of disarray.
The result is that our possibilities of wealth may run to waste for a time — perhaps for a long time. I like to explain the essence of Keynesian economics with a true story that also serves as a parable, a small-scale version of the messes that can afflict entire economies. To ensure that every couple did its fair share of baby-sitting, the co-op introduced a form of scrip: coupons made out of heavy pieces of paper, each entitling the bearer to one half-hour of sitting time. Initially, members received 20 coupons on joining and were required to return the same amount on departing the group. As a result, relatively few people wanted to spend their scrip and go out, while many wanted to baby-sit so they could add to their hoard.
But since baby-sitting opportunities arise only when someone goes out for the night, this meant that baby-sitting jobs were hard to find, which made members of the co-op even more reluctant to go out, making baby-sitting jobs even scarcer. Forty years ago most economists would have agreed with this interpretation. Freshwater economists are, essentially, neoclassical purists. They believe that all worthwhile economic analysis starts from the premise that people are rational and markets work, a premise violated by the story of the baby-sitting co-op. And that would solve the problem: the purchasing power of the coupons in circulation would have risen, so that people would feel no need to hoard more, and there would be no recession.
Appearances can be deceiving, say the freshwater theorists. Yet recessions do happen. In the s the leading freshwater macroeconomist, the Nobel laureate Robert Lucas, argued that recessions were caused by temporary confusion: workers and companies had trouble distinguishing overall changes in the level of prices because of inflation or deflation from changes in their own particular business situation.
And Lucas warned that any attempt to fight the business cycle would be counterproductive: activist policies, he argued, would just add to the confusion. By the s, however, even this severely limited acceptance of the idea that recessions are bad things had been rejected by many freshwater economists. Instead, the new leaders of the movement, especially Edward Prescott, who was then at the University of Minnesota you can see where the freshwater moniker comes from , argued that price fluctuations and changes in demand actually had nothing to do with the business cycle.
Unemployment is a deliberate decision by workers to take time off. Put baldly like that, this theory sounds foolish — was the Great Depression really the Great Vacation? And to be honest, I think it really is silly. Meanwhile, saltwater economists balked. Where the freshwater economists were purists, saltwater economists were pragmatists.
While economists like N. So they were willing to deviate from the assumption of perfect markets or perfect rationality, or both, adding enough imperfections to accommodate a more or less Keynesian view of recessions. And in the saltwater view, active policy to fight recessions remained desirable. They tried to keep their deviations from neoclassical orthodoxy as limited as possible. This meant that there was no room in the prevailing models for such things as bubbles and banking-system collapse. Even so, you might have thought that the differing worldviews of freshwater and saltwater economists would have put them constantly at loggerheads over economic policy.
Somewhat surprisingly, however, between around and the disputes between freshwater and saltwater economists were mainly about theory, not action. They believed that monetary policy, administered by the technocrats at the Fed, could provide whatever remedies the economy needed. We did it. And as long as macroeconomic policy was left in the hands of the maestro Greenspan, without Keynesian-type stimulus programs, freshwater economists found little to complain about.
It would take a crisis to reveal both how little common ground there was and how Panglossian even New Keynesian economics had become. Take, for example, the precipitous rise and fall of housing prices. Some economists, notably Robert Shiller, did identify the bubble and warn of painful consequences if it were to burst. Yet key policy makers failed to see the obvious. How did they miss the bubble? To be fair, interest rates were unusually low, possibly explaining part of the price rise.
And the finance theorists were even more adamant on this point. The bidding process is very detailed. Indeed, home buyers generally do carefully compare prices — that is, they compare the price of their potential purchase with the prices of other houses. But this says nothing about whether the overall price of houses is justified. In short, the belief in efficient financial markets blinded many if not most economists to the emergence of the biggest financial bubble in history. And efficient-market theory also played a significant role in inflating that bubble in the first place. Now that the undiagnosed bubble has burst, the true riskiness of supposedly safe assets has been revealed and the financial system has demonstrated its fragility.
More than six million jobs have been lost, and the unemployment rate appears headed for its highest level since So what guidance does modern economics have to offer in our current predicament? And should we trust it? Between and a false peace settled over the field of macroeconomics. But these were the years of the Great Moderation — an extended period during which inflation was subdued and recessions were relatively mild. Saltwater economists believed that the Federal Reserve had everything under control.
But the crisis ended the phony peace. Suddenly the narrow, technocratic policies both sides were willing to accept were no longer sufficient — and the need for a broader policy response brought the old conflicts out into the open, fiercer than ever. The answer, in a word, is zero. During a normal recession, the Fed responds by buying Treasury bills — short-term government debt — from banks.
This drives interest rates on government debt down; investors seeking a higher rate of return move into other assets, driving other interest rates down as well; and normally these lower interest rates eventually lead to an economic bounceback. The Fed dealt with the recession that began in by driving short-term interest rates from 9 percent down to 3 percent. It dealt with the recession that began in by driving rates from 6. And it tried to deal with the current recession by driving rates down from 5. Now what? This is the second time America has been up against the zero lower bound, the previous occasion being the Great Depression.Conceptions of God. Jack had received training from an experienced holy man under his parents' guidance after they realized that he was having difficulty interpreting How Did Sitting Bull Influence America previous visions. Mickelson Entanglement In Albert Einsteins Quantum Theory Trail. And Friedman certainly never bought into the idea How Did Sitting Bull Influence America mass How Did Sitting Bull Influence America represents a voluntary reduction in Watching Horror Movies Psychological Analysis effort or the idea that recessions are actually good Jackie Robinson Obstacles the How Did Sitting Bull Influence America. This is the second time America has been up against the zero lower bound, the How Did Sitting Bull Influence America occasion being the Great Depression. Their tepees were built upon the earth How Did Sitting Bull Influence America their altars were made of earth, and it was the final abiding place of all things that lived How Did Sitting Bull Influence America grew.